Professor at Shivaji University | Qualified SET | Lecture Notes | महाराष्ट्र अकॅडमी ऑफ सायन्स |
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1) COD TOC analyser (Nanocolour-400D)

COD TOC analyser (Nanocolour-400D) is a used to analyse waste water, drinking water, surface water, ground water etc containing organic compounds and or other impurities. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test determines the oxygen requirement equivalent of organic matter that is susceptible to oxidation with the help of a strong chemical oxidant. Total organic carbon (TOC) is measure of organic (carbon based) contaminants in a water system. It is also used to measure various parameters such as extinction, unknown concentration of liquid samples and kinetics.

2) Gas sensor unit

Gas sensing unit is used to test performance of the thin film sensors towards various gases at different operating temperatures. A well know water displacement method is used to measure volume of gas passed whereas PID controller is used to control temperature. In this unit gas response can be measured at as high as temperature of 300 oC and gas concentration as low as 0.011 Volume %. Test dome is made up of corning glass having volume 8.5 litter. Sample of 1 × 1 cm2 can be mounted on the hot plate. It is equipped with the Keithley System Electrometer-6514 which is programmable electrometer interfaced with PC using RS-232 cable through which data acquisition is done.

3) IPCE mapping unit

Incident Photon to Current Efficiency (IPCE) mapping unit is used for a measuring the incident photon flux to current conversion efficiency of the absorbed photons using a led lamps ranging from wavelength 360 to 420 nm. The light can be calibrated using a Hamamatsu photodiode and photocurrent spectra are measured at constant potential vs. Ag/AgCl using a combination of potentiostat. IPCE is also called as the external quantum efficiency. It has been used for understanding current generation, recombination, and diffusion mechanism in the cell. An IPCE of 100 % indicates the generation of one photoelectron per each incident photon.

4) Precesion LCR meter (Hewlett Packard, 4284A) (Teacher in charge of PIFC)

HP 4284A precision LCR meter is a cost-effective solution for component and material measurement. It can be used to improve component quality by providing an accurate, high-throughput test solution. The wide 20 Hz to 1 MHz test frequency range and superior test-signal performance allow the HP 4284A to test components to the most commonly-used test standards with 0.01% basic accuracy. LCR meter model 4284A is basically inductance ‘L’, capacitance (C) and resistance (R) measuring device with which high speed measurements (15 ms) are possible. With the help of this LCR meter we can analyse the bulk and thin film samples of various oxides. Capacitance, dielectric loss, real and imaginary part of the impedance etc. can be measured and dielectric constant, AC conductivity etc. can be calculated using standard formulae. Along with this various other properties that can be measured using LCR meter are absolute value of impedance (|Z|) and admittance |Y|, dissipation factor (D), quality factor (Q), equivalent series resistance (Ra) and equivalent parallel resistance (Rp), reactance (X), suspectance (B) and phase angle (θ) over the wide range.

5) Spectroscopic reflectometer (StellarNet USA)

Spectroscopic Reflectometer can be used to measure reflectance, transmittance and refractive index (n) of the material in thin film form. Refractive index can be calculated by measuring reflectance and transmittance of the films. Thickness of single or multilayer thin film samples can be measured without contact having thickness within range 5 nm to 20 µm with 10 Å accuracy. It measures reflectance over the range of 190 to 1100 nm with the help of Sony ILX511 CCD detector. The systems consist of a portable USB spectrometer coupled to a reflectance probe and Halogen and Deuterium light source, armoured fibre optic cable splitter. StellarNet spectrometer systems come with SpectraWiz and TF Companion softwares for colorimetry analysis. Real-time spectral capture and instrument controll for reflectance and/or transmittance measurements is made possible. It has large library of materials data for various substrates and materials. It could measure thickness of multilayer, freestanding, rough, and both thick and thin layer structures.

6) Spray Pyrolysis Technique for thin film deposition

Spray pyrolysis technique is a simple and economical wet chemical technique used to deposit a wide variety of materials in thin film form. With this system thin films could be deposited at as high substrate temperature as 500 oC, at various spray rates, concentrations and for different substrate to nozzle distances. Temperature is controlled to using PID controller and required pressure can be obtained using 0.5 HP air compressor which uses dry air as a carrier gas for atomization of the precursor solution. It is possible to deposit variety of micro and nano structures using spray pyrolysis technique. The enhancement in deposition efficiency and improvement in quality of the thin films can be achieved by optimizing various parameters such as substrate temperature, spray rate, carrier gas pressure, nozzle to substrate distance.

7) System electrometer (Keithley model 6514)

The System Keithley electrometer 6514 is advanced electrometer having capabilities of measuring current sensitivity, voltage and charge measurement, with high resolution, and speed superior. It has built-in IEEE-488, RS-232, and digital I/O interfaces which makes it simple to configure with PC. It can be used for applications that demand fast, yet precise measurements of low currents, voltages from high resistance sources, charges, or high resistances. It provides better data faster can be equipped with various equipments such as gas sensing unit, UV-Vis photodetector to measure currents generated from light detectors and or high resistances of the metal oxides upon adsorption of gases. It could measure resistance, charge and or current at a interval of milisecond to few seconds over the wide range of time. Resistance measurements allows to measure resistance ranging from few Ω to 210 GΩ, current sensitivity ranges from 20 pA to 20 mA, and charge measurement is possible from 20 fC to 20 µC with excellent resolution.

8) XRD, Bruker, D2 Phaser (Teacher in charge of PIFC)

The D2 PHASER X-ray diffractometer is a novel desktop X-ray diffraction model for the analysis of polycrystalline material. Advanced LYNXEYE detector is used for collection of high quality X-ray powder diffraction data with excellent speed. The Copper is used as target material with wavelength 1.5406 A˚ for the production of X-rays. It is perfect X-ray diffractometer for phase identification of materials, size strain detection structure determination and refinement as well as structure and strain analysis. It can measure 2θ angles ranging from 3 to 160 o with the accuracy of 0.02o with very small possible peak width of less than 0.05o. It uses DIFFRAC.SUITE software which allows measurement and analysis of the measured pattern. ICDD data base pdf4 is used for the analysis of samples. It is most advanced database for crystallographic analysis.

9)Double Distilled Water Plant

This double distilled water plant produces highly treated and disinfected water at a rate of 2 l/hr. It is compactly designed having dual safety cut-out equipped with fully automatic sensors for water level measurement and flow of water through the condenser. The distillation process removes minerals and microbiological contaminants and can reduce levels of chemical contaminants making it suitable to use water for research purpose. It is equipped with silicon heater with total consuming power of 4 kW in two quartz glass container of 4l each.

10)PEC degradation reactor

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) detoxification reactor module is used to eliminate of contaminants in the water such as such as aromatic compounds, pesticides, organic dyes, organic sulphur compounds, and bacteria; these methods are quite difficult as compared with the conventional physical techniques. It consists of nine photoelectrochemical cells to which 9 photoelectrode under study are attached using steel disc. A peristaltic pump connected through silicon tubes is used to circulate contaminated water through electrodes. An electrical bias is applied to increase efficiency by decreasing recombination of electron hole pairs. The nine reactors are arranged in module such that outlet of first reactor is inlet of second reactor and outlet of second as a inlet of next reactor and so on. Finally output has been collected at ninth reactor. The distance between photoelectrode (cathode) and a steel disc is 0.1 cm. The electrode area in contact with the electrolyte is 64 cm2.The electrolyte of specified concentration can be circulated through reactor with at required flow rate using peristaltic pump under sun light.

11) PE loop tracer system

The PE Loop tracer system is purchased from Marine India Company is fully digital system interfaced with computer using RS232. It is fully automatic and operations are performed and controlled with PC. The different tests such as PE loop at different temperatures; different frequencies and fatigue measurement can be performed with the system. As high as of 50 KV/cm field for 0.5 mm bulk pellet can be operated whereas frequency can be varied over the range of 50-1KHz in fix 8 steps. Fatigue is up to 20th order of cycles. Temperature is controlled using PID control, silicon oil is used for uniform heating of the pallets. The PE loop tracer is used for the measurement of hysteresis curve of applied electric field against polarization. The Electrical hysteresis typically occurs in ferroelectric materials, where domains of polarization contribute to the total polarization. Polarization is the electrical dipole moment. The mechanism, an organization of the polarization into domains, is similar to that of magnetic hysteresis.

12) UV-VIS spectrophotometer 3000+

UV-VIS spectrophotometer 3000+ is used to measure transmittance properties of the films as well as liquids as a function of wavelength. Its double beam optics ensures good stability and easy reference can be made. It is interfaced with computer with the help of UVWin software which adds many additional functions to analyse data. Its sample holder could allow to measure 8 samples in one run. Provided with holographic grating greatly reducing stray light of the instrument and making the analysis more accurate. Fastest scanning speed is over 300-1000 nm at scan rate ranging from 0.1 to 10 nm. Measurable absorbance range of spectrophotometer varies from +3 to -3. The deuterium and tungsten lamps are used as source and silicon photo diode is used as detector.

13) Elico SL207 mini spectrophotometer

Elico SL207 mini spectrophotometer is used to measure transmittance properties of materials as a function of wavelength. Spectral range is over 335 to 1000 nm with accuracy of 1 nm. Absorbance range varies over 0 to 1.999 Abs. Tungsten (W) Halogen Lamp is used as source and silicon photo diode is used as detector. Crenzy turner type monochromator provides good stability and fast readout. Two position manual selectable cuvette holder allows to measure two samples in one run. Microcontroller based motorized wavelength drive gives more accuracy.

14) COD digester

COD digester is basically a thermoreactor used for digestion of samples. It has solid block heating unit controlled temperature controller for constant digestion over the range of ambient to 250 oC. It has provision of digestion of 25 samples at a time. The closed cap vials of 16 mm diameter can be used for digestion. It is provided with external fan to cool it down fast for next measurements. It also can be programmed for 0-24 hours.